Understand Ageing

According to World Health Organization (WHO), ageing is defined as: “At the biological level, ageing results from the impact of the accumulation of a wide variety of molecular and cellular damage over time. This leads to a gradual decrease in physical and mental capacity, a growing risk of disease, and ultimately, death. But these changes are neither linear nor consistent, and they are only loosely associated with a person’s age in years.”*

Ageing is a natural complex process effected by genetic and various biological factors and can be significantly accelerated by external factors from stress, lifestyle, poor diet and nutritions, diseases, pollutions, toxic chemicals, which we face through our lifetime. 

Cellular Ageing

Our bodies are made up of more than trillion cells.  When we get older in years, our cells do so too.  From birth, new cells are constantly forming and growing by dividing into two identical cells.  Once we reach certain age, our cells stop multiplying and will divide only to replace cells which have been damaged or die, except skin cells which continue to divide regularly at a slower pace over time. 

Cells can divide for limited number of times. Every time a cell divides, telomere at the tip of the chromosome is shortened.  Therefore, Telomere of young cells are longer than aged cells.  When the telomeres get very short, cells reach their end point, and they will no longer divide and eventually die. 

Direct damage to cells from harmful substance can lead to premature cell death. Cause of cell death can also come from by-products of normal cell activities which are called “free radicals”.    

Older cell’s function is also deteriorated by increased damage to DNA, and the mitochondria which produce energy to cell also become less efficient. 

*Ref: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health

What happens when we age

The Hallmarks of Ageing* summarize what happen biologically when we age into 9 hallmarks:

Cellular function is fundamental to all organs and body function.  When cells are not repaired and replaced, the number of cells will become less which results in abnormal organ functions.  When one organ fails to work well, it will impact other organ’s function and result in our health degeneration.

Effect of Ageing on our health

These are major effects of ageing on our health:

Heart and blood vessels

As we age, blood vessels will start losing their elasticity, artery walls will suffer from fatty deposits built-up which, as a result, increase workload to the heart to circulate the blood through your body. This can lead to high blood pressure (hypertension) and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). 

Brain and Nervous System

Ageing results in decreasing number of brain cells and chemical substances required in sending signal and messages in the brain.  Nerve cells also start losing their abilities to receive and transfer these signals and messages.  Memory loss is one of a result of decrease in brain cells and blood flow.  Brain and some mental functions for example short-term memory, and vocabulary might be reduced.  Strength and sensation may be lowered due to damaged nerves.  Progressive loss of nerve cells disorder are for example, Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

Bones, Joints & Muscles

When we get older, our bones tend to shrink in size and become less dense. Weakened bones are easier to fracture. Muscles, tendon and joints may lose strength, endurance and flexibility. Cartilage which lines the joints generally gets thinner because of years of movement.  Ligament and tendon become less elastic, and joints may feel stiff. These can reduce your stability, coordination and balance and pose higher risk of injuries and lead to Osteoarthritis which is one of most common disorder from ageing. Healing and repairing process will take longer as number of cells and their function are decreased.

From around age 30, amount of muscle mass starts to decrease.  Some of reasons are less production of growth hormone and testosterone in the body which stimulate muscle growth. Less physical activities and slower metabolism can result in weight gain when we get older. 

Effect of Ageing on our health

Skin, hair, and nails

Ageing body produces less elastin and collagen which makes skin texture less flexible and lose its strength. Skin and fat layer under the skin starts becoming thin, saggy, dry, and wrinkled.  The number of pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) decreases. The skin also has less protection against UV radiation from sunlight because of melanocyte decrease.  Age and brown spots can easily develop from exposure to sunlight and cells are not able to detoxify chemicals and harmful substance well. When we age, hair follicles might stop producing new hair and melanin which cause hair loss and hair color turning gray.  Nails will grow slower and become brittle and dull.  Tips of fingernails may break easily.   

Eyes and Ears

The eyes will produce less fluid and feel dry.  While the lens might become stiff, dense, and yellow which make focusing on close objects more difficult, your eyes become more sensitive to light, change in color perception and cause clouded vision.

Exposure to excessive noise over time can cause damage to your ear as well as when we age our hearing is affected for example having difficulty in hearing high-pitched sound or even hearing loss. 

As people age, hearing high-pitched sounds becomes more difficult. This change is considered age-associated hearing loss (presbycusis). For example, violin music may sound less bright.

Immune System

Immune system cells number are decreased and responds slower to detect and destroy harmful foreign substances for example viruses, bacteria etc. The risk of getting sick is higher.  Lowered number of immune cells also results in longer period of healing.  Autoimmune disorder may develop because of immune system losing ability to detect and correct cell defects and start attacks healthy cells in the body.   

Effect of Ageing on our health

Reproductive Organ

Ageing affects in decreasing of hormone levels.  In women, most of the effects are related to menopause.  When female hormones, in particular estrogen is lowered drastically, the ovaries will shrink, discomfort in vagina may occur, and pregnancy is no longer possible.  Low hormones can greatly result in mood swing, difficulty sleeping, and feeling depressed which can interfere sexual activities as well. 

In men, changes in sex hormone are gradual.  Lower levels of male hormone, testosterone, results in decreased libido and less sperm production.  Blood flow can be decreased which may cause impotence especially as a result of vascular diseases for example diabetes. 


Kidneys lose cells as we age and get smaller which make them less efficient in removing waste from bloodstream.  At about age 30, blood flow to kidney and kidney’s function to filter blood may be reduced. Chronic diseases such as diabetes or high blood pressure can cause even more damage to kidneys.

Regenerative Medicine: Advanced Science for Anti-Ageing and Age reversal

“Regenerative medicine, an interdisciplinary field that applies engineering and life science principles to promote regeneration, can potentially restore diseased and injured tissues and whole organs. Regenerative medicine has the potential to heal or replace tissue and organs damaged by age, disease, or trauma, as well as to normalize congenital defects.” *

Regenerative medicine generally focuses on reinstate and enhance our body’ healing capabilities by combining wide ranges of scientific disciplines from molecular biology and genetics to immunology and biochemistry. 

*Ref: Regenerative medicine: Current therapies and future directions

Angelo S. Mao and David J. Mooney https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4664309/

Stem cells

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells which are capable of accelerating healing process by activating cellular communications especially tissue cells and neuron cells, secreting growth factors for cellular repair and renew, stimulating white blood cells function to reboot immune function and reduce inflammation in the whole body,

Scientific research reveals that allogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are highly effective.  Not only in the rejuvenation of the body but also in the repair of accident or age-related tissue damage.  Stem cells holds potential in treatments of many diseases, for example diabetes type 1, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, injuries, and genetic disorder. 

Benefits of stem cells


Ageing is a result of our cells in the body losing ability to replicate and repair over time. However our daily lifestyle, stress, diseases and injuries are major factors which accelerate ageing process and cause damage to our health.
By introducing young and fresh stem cells into the body, they can help to repair damaged cells and replace ageing cells which resulting in delaying and reversing ageing and injuries from cellular level.

Reduces inflammation

Mesenchymal stem cells can stimulate process of white blood cells which is a major part of our immune system. Macrophages are a type of white blood cells which remove harmful agents and dead cells from blood stream through inflammation process. MSCs speed up process of shifting M1 macrophages which create inflammation into M2 macrophages which reduce inflammation and start repairing faster. Therefore MSCs can support your body’s healing, treat and lower risk of chronic diseases.

Support mitochondrial health

Mitochondria are found in every cell of our body. They produce about 90% of the energy cells need to survive and function. Mitochondria from young stem cells can be transferred to aged and unhealthy cells through intercellular communication and increase the cells energy and function for optimum health.

Signal cellular communication for regeneration 

Stem cells can facilitate quick and effective healing by identifying and migrating to injury or inflamed sites and then send signals between specific damaged cells and the surrounding environment -the stem cell niche- to become “awake” and start the regeneration process. MSCs can receive and respond to many different types of cellular signals from their environment and then be able to react to various needs of tissues where injuries occur which require repair and prevent tissue overgrowth.

Regenerate blood vessels and support cardiovascular health

Stem cells have been used to treat several vascular conditions from diabetes to cardiovascular conditions. MSCs can help to restore vascular and heart function and structure. They help to regenerate new blood vessels which improves blood circulation and transportation of oxygen to the injured organs and throughout the body. MSCs can prevent heart tissue damage and offer long-term results by addressing the root cause of heart deficiencies rather than symptom-relief treatments.